Articles about shoeing, hoof care and nutrition, vet care and other services related to caring for your Lusitano in Portugal. Articles from professionals.

CBD oil for horses: what do you need to know

CBD for Horses by Cecilia Leal

Nowadays, products based on Cannabis plant are becoming a popular trend, especially for human medical use. However, what do we know about its use in pets, more specifically, in horses?
The first thing to note on this subject is that there is common misunderstanding between the terms cannabis, marijuana, hemp, CBD and THC, as well as an erroneous perception that CBD oil contains the
(tetra-hydro-cannabinol). Let us start by clarifying thepreviously mentioned terms.

The Plant

Cannabis is an Asian herb of the family Cannabaceae, which comprises two different species: Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica. Although there are similarities between the two, there are also important differences: Cannabis sativa belongs to the hemp family and has tough fibrous, tall and loose branches, and Cannabis indica is a low-growing densely branched species. Unfortunately, the term is used interchangeably in popular culture with marijuana although strains of cannabis can be either marijuana or hemp depending on their concentration of THC.
Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is legally defined (in the USA and the EU) as any part of the cannabis plant that contains less than or equal to 0.3% THC. Hemp has traditionally been farmed for industrial uses (e.g., textiles, paper, biodiesel, construction materials), as well as for food (hemp seeds and hemp seed oil).

The term Marijuana is typically used for the psychoactive dried resinous flower buds and leaves of the cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa or indica) but can refer to any part of the cannabis plant that contains more than 0.3% of THC (De Briyne et al., 2021).

CBD & THC applications

The Cannabis plant contains hundreds of different active compounds, which have either psychoactive or non-psychoactive effects. The two main components are are THC (tetra-hydro-cannabidiol) and CBD (cannabidiol). THC is a psychoactive component of the cannabis plant that is linked to the ìnebriated` state.

CBD, on the other hand, has been investigated for many conditions, most notably epilepsy, but also including, anxiety, mental health conditions such as schizophrenia, appetite improvement, nausea relief, sleeping disorders, elevated intraocular pressure, pain related to chemotherapy treatments, and multiple sclerosis-related spasticity.

THC is psychotropic in humans and dogs, which have a high number of cannabinoid1 receptors in their brains. CBD, on the other hand, has no psychotropic effects and is particularly effective at low doses.

Studies of CBD effects on horses

In horses, CBD products have shown promise for treatment of hyperaesthesia (Ellis & Contino, 2019), osteoarthritis pain (Sanchez-Aparicio et al., 2019), anti-inflammatory effect in chronic inflammation (Turner et al., 2021), visceral pain, inflammatory processes and changes in intestinal motility in horses (Galiazzoa et al., 2021). Although available objective data regarding therapeutic dosage is still scarce, different dosages have been studied and did not cause adverse effects, like incoordination or sedation, and was overall well tolerated (Yocom et al.; Blanc et al.; Williams et al., 2022).

A study made by Ellis and Contino (2019) reported improvements in a horse with severe pain sensitivity when administered 500 mg CBD per day. Another study reported lower reactivity (spookability) after 6 weeks of supplementing with 100 mg of CBD every day (Draeger et al., 2021). In addition, according to Turner et al. (2021), CBD was responsible for decreased inflammatory cytokines (proteins associated with pain and inflammation), in a study conducted in vitro.

Galiazzoa et al. (2021) performed a study in order to identify the distribution of different cannabinoid receptors in the equine intestine. These findings support CBD use against visceral pain, inflammatory processes and changes in intestinal motility in horses. Therefore, it could have interesting applications in cases of colic, inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal hipomotility after colic surgery.

Is CBD safe to use?

Williams et al. (2022) conducted pharmacokinetics studies looking at the absorption and clearance of CBD. A dose of 175 mg and 1000 mg was given to 500 kg/1100 lb horses, orally, once per day for 7 days. There was no incidence of diarrhea or loose stool, decreased appetite or somnolence recorded.

However, it is important to note that despite the relatively high dose (1000 mg daily) plasma concentrations were below the effective concentrations reported by Turner (2021). Therefore, a horse might need significantly higher oral doses of CBD for any effectiveness against pain and inflammation.

In another study conducted by Yocom et al. (2022), CBD was reliably detected in synovial fluid at 1500 mg single dose. Because cannabinoid receptors have been identified in osteoarthritic joints in humans and dogs it explains the pain modulation mechanism of osteoarthritic pain, in this study mild hypocalcemia was seen in all horses and elevated liver enzymes were observed in 8/12 horses, but these changes improved or normalized within 10 days after the final CBD dose. Some horses presented soft-form manure for a few days and 10/12 gained weight. All horses maintained normal physical examination parameters, attitude, and appetite throughout the duration of the study. No behavioral changes, including sedative-effects, were observed.

Most CBD studies performed on horses are very recent (the latest one dates of 2019) and additional studies are required to investigate the efficacy in treating specific conditions and to establish therapeutic doses.

What is the status of CBD oil use on competition horses?

According to FEI’s regulations, all natural and synthetic cannabinoids containing THC are banned substances, meaning they are not permitted for use on the competition horse at any time. However, cannabidiol (CBD/CBDA) is under controlled substances. According to FEI, controlled medication aresubstances that are deemed by the FEI to have therapeutic value and/or be commonly used in equine medicine. They have the potential to affect performance and/or be a welfare risk to the horse. This means that although your horse may be administered CBD, you cannot compete while it is present in your horse’s organism.

Previous research has indicated that CBD can be detected in urine for up to 72 hours following a single dose. It should also be noted that, despite the considerably low quantity of THC present in CBD products,THC can be present for up to 24 hours post administration in plasma samples (Williams et al., 2022).

By: Cecilia Leal, DVM

Equine Vet Located in Ericeira Portugel (close to Lisbon)  Contact – 00 351 915 010 360

Email – ceciliarodrigoleal@gmail.com  Facebook Page Equi24

OTHER ARTICLES – Feeding Lusitanos, Shoeing, Piroplasmosis

 

Sources

Blanc M. P. St. , Chapman A. M., Keowen M. L., et al., Effects of a Supplement Containing Cannabidiol
(CBD) on Sedation and Ataxia Scores and Health, Journal of Equine Veterinary Science,
10.1016/j.jevs.2022.104085, 117, (104085), (2022).

De Briyne, N.; Holmes, D.; Sandler, I., et al. Cannabidiol Oils and Tetrahydrocannabinol—What Do Veterinarians Need to Know? Animals 2021, 11, 892. https://doi.org/10.3390/ ani11030892.

Draeger A. L., Thomas E. P., Jones K. A., et al., The effects of pelleted cannabidiol supplementation on heart rate and reaction scores in horses. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 2021, Vol 46, 97-100.

Ellis K, Contino E. Treatment using cannabidiol in a horse with mechanical allodynia. Equine Vet Educ 2019; 33:e79–82.

Galiazzoa G., Tagliaviaa C., Giancolaa F., et al., Localisation of Cannabinoid and Cannabinoid-Related Receptors in the Horse Ileum. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 2021, Vol 104, 103688.

Sanchez-Aparicio P., Floran B., Velazquez D. R., et al., Cannabinoids CB2 Receptors, One New Promising Drug Target for Chronic and Degenerative Pain Conditions in Equine Veterinary Patients, Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 2020, Vol 85, 102880.

Turner S, Barker VD, Adams AA. Effects of cannabidiol on the in vitro lymphocyte pro-inflammatory cytokine production of senior horses. J Equine Vet Sci 2021;103:668.

Williams M.R., Holbrook T.C., Maxwell L., et al. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of a cannabidiol supplement for horses. J Equine Vet Sci 2022; 103842.

Yocom A. F., O’Fallon E. S., Gustafson D.L., Contino E. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Synovial Fluid Concentrations of Singleand Multiple-Dose Oral Administration of 1 and 3 mg/kg Cannabidiol in Horses. J Equine Vet Sci 2022, 113, 103933.

 

The joy of Riding Your Horse Out

Portugal´s 1st European Certified EuroFarrier

 

Image – Nuno Bernardes

First Farrier in Portugal with the European Certified EuroFarrier Qualification

This qualificated is issued by the European Federation of Farriers Association.

There is an old saying among horsemen, “No foot, No horse.” Despite their size and strength, horses are notoriously fragile animals. Four slender legs and small hooves must bear the horse’s full weight of 400 to 650 kilos.

 

Therefore hoof care is a vitally important issue for all horse owners. It is true that a horse may be able to sustain injury or illness in many parts of its body, the hoof bears weight and so adds hundreds of kilos of stress to any ailment.  Maintaining a healthy hoof is the best way to give your horses a good chance to have a long, healthy lives. And that is only possible by having the best, and better educated, professionals at your service.

Developing a Passion for Hoof Care

After many years as an Equine Veterinarian, Nuno Bernardes found one area of equine medicine that shortly became his passion and his medical focus: Podiatry. One of the gaps he also found in his education was precisely hoof care and hoof therapeutics. And not only he decided to put his focus on improving his theoretical background on hoof and its conditions, but he also found the need to put his hands directly at the trade. Not having a true education reference in any institution in Portugal, he decided to engage in an Emergency Farrier Course in Spain that allowed him to get the basic skills to add to his already strong theoretical knowledge.

Following the premise that more qualification comes through education, in February this year Nuno Bernardes achieved a mile stone for Portuguese farriers by receiving the EFFA -Certified Eurofarrier Qualification. He has become the first farrier in Portugal to achieve this level of expertise. This certification recognizes the knowledge and skills to be able to perform legally the farrier trade in almost every country in Europe. Judge by recognized specialists through a very demanding and detailed examination, Nuno was able to pass this exam and get his recognition.

EFFA

 

EFFA -The European Federation of Farriers Associations develops a common basic standard of competence in farriery.  The Mission of the European Federation of Farriers Associations is to improve the welfare of the horse by encouraging the highest standards of trimming and shoeing.

Nuno has been our farrier for a number of years and I have always been struck by how much knowledge and active interest he has in the subject . He is continuously committed to advancing his learning by regularly travelling to other countries for clinics and courses. With Nuno we have the added advantage that he is also a practising vet so he brings his veterinary knowledge to his work. His efforts have paid off and I think this will encourage many more farriers aim for the same level of excellence.

Sharing Knowledge to Bring the Standards in Portugal

Being very found of sharing his knowledge with veterinary students that he tutors, and other farriers, he is always available to lecture at the universities and in farrier meetings. One of his goals his to increase the level of the farrier trade in Portugal through a formal education program for starting farriers but also organizing Continuous Professional Development courses for already stablished farriers. Following this objective, Nuno also had a very important role in promoting the constitution of the Portuguese Farriers Association, from which he is also a board member.

The Art of a Good Farrier

Thoroughout his daily work he deals with a lot of therapeutical cases, working in strong connection with some veterinarians and hospitals, but he also shoes horses that don’t have any particular problem but that do have owners that demand for a very knowledgeable professional.

 

Our Experience with Nuno´s Work

Having owned horse most my life and now been in Portugal many years owning and selling horses I have seen the results of a huge amount of pre purchase examinations. I think it gives me small position to comment on the importance of good hoof care. I can honestly say that I have witnessed an improvement in the quality of farrier work but it has saddened many times when a lovely horse has been failed due to neglect in this area. I cannot stress enough how important it is to be rigorous when you own horses about hoof care and shoeing.

 

 

So how do we maintain a healthy hoof?

Just like our own health it is better to commit to overall wellbeing as a health benchmark.  Not waiting for problems to take action. If the diet is right, the hooves are regularly checked even for breeding stock and good shoeing you are well on the way.  Horses in work should have their hooves picked out daily before and after work.  The aim of picking out the hooves is to keep out rocks, clean out damp bedding and mud to avoid thrush. Just like our fingernails, horse’s hooves grow continuously and need to be trimmed every five to six weeks to keep them in proper shape.

A Trained Farrier should do the Trimming.

Inexperienced horse owners can easily trim the hoof unproperly, leading to infection or discomfort.  The hooves must also be balanced to the horse’s natural way this is done by seeing the horse moving and the wear of the shoe and hoof. If this is not done correctly the horse can end up uneven in their gait or worse physically disabled. Not every horse will require shoeing, but if your horses are doing a lot of hard work or working on hard surfaces, they will probably need to be shod. And if he is unbalanced or in need of therapeutic shoeing it will most certainly do.

Dangers of Not Maining Good Hoof Care Practise

There are a number of other problems that can occur If a hoof is not maintained well, problems such as thrush, canker, bruised sole, abscesses, and cracks in the hoof wall.  Thrush is a sign of infection. You will recognise this by the malodourous discharge from the frog of the horse. To avoid this keep your horse out of constant wet, and dirty conditions. Bruised soles often occur after a poor shoeing job or if shoes are left on too long. Abscesses can be a horse’s nightmare. If an abscess develops, more than likely your horse will suddenly be impaired on one foot. They are caused by puncture wounds, or by bruising, but long and neglected hooves suffer the most. To solve this, you will need to see a veterinarian, have the abscess drained, poultice and assure that he has his tetanus vaccination updated. Cracks are important to avoid because they can also lead to infection and severe lameness. The easiest way to avoid cracks is to have a professional trim the hoof. Usually cracks develop from unbalanced hooves and wrong weight bearing distribution. Those pressures can affect the coronary band, where the hoof grows from, leading to the deep cracks that are quite hard and time consuming to manage.

Other conditions to be aware of are

There are other conditions too such as white line disease. The white line is the area (that looks whitish but more often is yellow) between the outside hoof wall and where it meets the sole. When this becomes damaged, it allows fungus and/or bacteria to invade and separate the layers of the hoof wall. If this happens, the infection can spread around the hoof and up the inside of the wall to gradually “eat away” at the hoof. It usually don’t cause lameness but its progression can go as high as the coronary band. At this stage it can compromise severely the suspension of the third phalanx within the hoof, leading to severe signs pretty similar to those of a laminitis.

A quality balanced diet is paramount for healthy hooves.

A quality balanced diet is paramount for healthy hooves.  Horses that are obese or severely malnourished will eventually develop problems in the hooves.  Horses’ hooves are made up of protein and keratin (the same stuff that makes up hair). Like a horse’s hair coat, hooves will grow faster when days are longer. And while hooves may be slower than your horse’s hair coat to tell you that your horse’s overall health is suffering, sooner or later you’ll see poor nutrition reflected in cracks, chips or uneven hoof growth. It may be a subtle (and slow-moving) nutrition report, but your horse’s hooves are doing their best to say “pay attention!” And never forget water!!!

Check the articles on feeding Lusitanos – knowing their history and early lifestyle helps hugely in understanding the right diet for them.

The Risks

An obese horse may be at risk for laminitis due to a metabolic condition known as Equine Metabolic Syndrome. Laminitis occurs when the delicate folds of tissue in the hoof (laminae) that produce the hard substance of the hoof wall and keep the hoof wall attached to the underlying bone, become inflamed or damaged. Left unattended, laminitis can lead to founder,a chronic condition in which a horse’s coffin bone rotates or sinks. Learn to be aware of the nutritional aspects of the feeds you choose especially the levels of sugar which is not suitable for horses in large amounts. In our management we prefer to keep sugar entirely out of our horses´ diet.

The benefits of plenty of movement is vital and when possible horses are better in overall well being when they can live some of their time outside in paddocks. Movement stimulates the blood flow to the hoof keeping them flexible and energised.

These are just tips about horse care and a few problems that could occur if you do not understand the importance of a healthy hoof.  Just remember the old saying –

`No foot, no horse.’ A horse is only as strong as the feet it stands on.

A big thank you to Nuno for his outstanding work and well deserved achievements it is another step for Portuguese Equestrian Culture and providing high quality service.

Text – Teresa Burton

Images Carolina Duarte Photography

You can contact Nuno Bernardes email  nbluso@cvetequinos.com

 

 

Horse Insurance in Portugal

At Lusitano Horse Finder we are always looking to improve our service and provide you with extra ´peace of mind´recently we have been exploring different Insurance options for your Lusitano in Portugal in addition other services that can give you added value and finger tip information all stored in one pass coded secure personalised location online.

INSURANCE POLICES

When you are buying a horse in another country and then leaving him there for training it is only natural that you would have concerns. Wondering how he is, is he  happy, working well and if something happens can he be covered by insurance. Unfortunately there are very few professional organisations that offer good quality insurance plans at competitive prices for horses in Portugal. After much research we are happy to say we have formed a union with a company that provides exactly what you need for ´peace of mind´ comprehensive service.

Worldwide Leader

They are a worldwide leader for sport horse Insurance, and approved cover holder at Lloyd’s of London.
They have been insuring horses all around the world for more than 30 years, and also have their own international breeding and showjumping competition stable.

Since they are in the horse field it has definitively helped them to fulfil the expectations of us horse owners, breeders and riders.  We believe they provide the best insurance coverage on the market. All the time your horse in away in another country and even back at your home your horse can be completely covered. 

If you would like to know more and see some sample policies and quotes please do get in touch it is a ´no commitment´ contact.  Feel free to Email Teresa.

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FINGER TIP INFORMATION ONLINE

In addition we offer another very modern services for your horses in training.  It is an online, password protected ´Lusitano Management Profile Service´.  This product is designed to give you immediate online access to your horse´s information which is updated monthly.

Online Profiles

The profiles shows everything from history, x-rays, training plans, videos of training, images, nutrition plan, shoeing,vet, updates re tack etc, competition records.  Everything you need to know about your horse all stored online on a secure platform.  This way even if you cannot visit your horse from long periods of time you can access real time updates, see how he is developing. We even offer booked ´real time´skype training where you can talk directly with the trainer while your horse is working, or watch a training session live.  These profiles also act as an excellent sales support if you decide to sell your horse.  They work along the vet pre-purchase it gives buyers a real understanding of the horse and his life and health.

Contact us to find out more and see sample pages. Email :  Teresa

charlotte

The online horse profile is a fantastic tool to keep up to date with your horse´s progress.  It houses all the important information such as farrier reports, vet reports, current nutrition plans, training status, photographs and training video updates. 

It can be so hard living in a different country to where your horse is in training, so this tool is extremely helpful to see how your horse is progressing.

It´s also very nice having all the information in one place rather than being sent updates via email and not having a good storage system. This way it is easier to follow your horse´s development by comparing previous with current status.

Testimonial from Charlotte Irps – Switzerland

About the Pre Purchase Exam

 

Buy a Lusitano with Us

 

APSL – when buying your Lusitano you need to ensure you have the correct paperwork such as blue book (passport) and Ownership transfer.